Flat white

A flat white is a coffee beverage originating from Australia.[1] It is prepared by pouring microfoam (steamed milk from the bottom of a pitcher) over a single or double shot of espresso. It is similar to the latte and the cafe au lait. Like other espresso-based beverages, it can be interpreted various ways. The beverage is typically served in a small 150160 millilitre ceramic cup. Microfoam is used, resulting in a smooth and velvety texture. A flat white may incorporate latte art. [edit]Similar beverages A cappuccino is similar, but in some countries has a head of dry foam rather than microfoam. A flat white is not different from an original Italian cappuccino, which is a single espresso with microfoam served in a 150-160 ml cup.[2] The Spanish cafe con leche is similar to a flat white but uses scalded milk. In a flat white, the milk is steamed to 6070 C (typically 150170 F). Steaming the milk to a lower temperature retains the fats and proteins in the milk which retain a sweet flavour, lost when milk is steamed to scalding temperatures.[3] A Cafe con Leche also lacks the head of microfoam. The latte is occasionally argued to be similar: "The only difference between the two drinks is the vessel in which they're presented. A flat white is served in a ceramic cup, usually of the same volume (200 millilitres) as a latte glass. However, some cafes will top a latte with extra froth, while others may pour a flat white slightly shorter." Microfoam is milk foamed using a steam wand on an espresso machine, used for making espresso-based coffee drinks, particularly those with latte art. The opposite of microfoam is macrofoam (also called dry foam, in contrast to the wet foam of microfoam), which has visibly large

bubbles, a style of milk commonly used for cappuccinos. Creating steamed milk requires the introduction of steam to the milk until a certain amount of foam (also called "froth") is created. The foam content is controlled by the barista during the steaming process,[1] and involves two phases: first, introducing air ("frothing, stretching") by having the steam tip near the top of the milk, and second, mixing the incorporated air throughout the milk ("mixing, texturing"), which is achieved by having the steam tip immersed more deeply, creating flow or a "whirlpool" in the milk. During the steaming process, the foam phase is both primarily created at the top, and naturally separates from the liquid phase, and rises to the surface. As a result, after the steaming ends, the mixing often continues by swirling the pitcher in a smooth, circular motion until the mixture of foam and warmed milk becomes homogenous, before being added to a drink. Too much foam, or foam that is not sufficiently mixed with the milk, creates "dry" foam and a totally white surface on a drink (see cappuccino), while not enough foam yields liquid, runny milk and creates a homogeneous, light-brown coffee drink, with no foam or patterning, just like adding warm milk. To pour latte art, the milk should be shiny, slightly thick, and should have very small, uniform bubbles.[1] It is not particularly "foamy"[2] it is better described as "gooey" and closely resembles melted marshmallows. There have been a variety of names used for this ideal standard, such as "microfoam", "velvet milk",[3] "microbubbles", and so forth. The milk must not be overheated to the point that it is scalded, as at this point the enzymes denature and the texture no longer works.