A cappuccino (/?k?pt?i?no?/; Italian pronunciation: [kapput?t?i?no], is an Italian coffee drink traditionally prepared with espresso, hot milk, and steamed-milk foam. The name comes from the Capuchin friars, referring to the colour of their habits.[1] Definition A cappuccino is a coffee drink topped with foamed milk. It is made in a steam-producing espresso machine. Espresso is poured into the bottom third of the cup, followed by a similar amount of hot milk. The top third of the drink consists of milk foam; this foam can be decorated with artistic drawings made with the same milk, called latte art[citation needed]. The drinker may sprinkle shaved chocolate, raw sugar, cinnamon, or other spices onto the top of the finished drink, or have chocolate melted into the coffee before the milk is added. Cappuccinos are served with a teaspoon and then consumed. In a traditional cappuccino, as served in Europe and artisan coffee houses in the United States, the total of espresso and milk/foam make up between approximately 150180 mL (56 imp fl oz; 56 US fl oz). Commercial coffee chains in the US more often serve the cappuccino as a 360 mL (13 imp fl oz; 12 US fl oz) drink or larger.[2] [edit]Etymology 'Cappuccino' comes from the diminutive form of cappuccio [it], meaning hood or something that covers the head. The coffee beverage has its name from not the hood but the colour of the robes worn by monks and nuns of the capuchin order. The capuchins chose the particular design of their orders' robes both in colour and shape of the hood back in the 16th century, inspired by Francis of Assisi's preserved 13th century vestments. The long and pointed hood was characteristic and soon gave the brothers the nickname 'capuchins' (hood-wearing). It was, however the choice of red-brown as the order's vestment colour that, as early as the 17th century, saw 'capuchin' used also as a term for a specific colour. While Francis of Assisi humbly used uncoloured and un-bleached wool for his robes, the capuchins coloured their vestments to differ from Franciscans, Benedictines, Augustinians and other orders. 'Cappuccino' in its Italian form is not known in writings until the 20th century, the German-language 'kapuziner' is mentioned in the 18th century in Austria, and is described as 'coffee with sugar, egg yolks and cream' in dictionary entries from 1800 onwards. Although it seems the 'kapuziner' may have had whipped cream on top, it seems likel the name comes from the specific colour of the beverage's mix of coffee, cream and eggs. [edit]History and evolution of the cappuccino The consumption of coffee in Europe was initially based on the traditional Ottoman preparation of the drink, by bringing to boil the mixture of coffee and water together, sometimes by adding sugar. The British seem to have started filtering and steeping coffee already in the 2nd part of the 17th century, and France and continental Europe followed suit. By the 19th century coffee was brewed in different devices designed for both home and public Cafes. 'Cappuccino' originated in the Viennese coffee houses in the 1700s: a coffee beverage named the 'Kapuziner' shows up on Coffee House menus all over the Austro-Hungarian Empire around this time, and is in 1805 described as 'coffee with cream and sugar' (it does not say how it is composed, but the name indicates the capuchin colour). 'Kapuziner' is mentioned again in writings in the 1850s, described as 'coffee with cream, spices and sugar'. Other coffees containing cream surfaces in Vienna, and outside Austria 'Viennese Coffee' or 'Cafe Viennois', -coffee with whipped cream-, becomes known. Predecessors of Irish Coffee, sweetened coffee with different alcohols, topped with whipped cream also spreads out from Vienna. 'Kapuziner' had its name from the colour of coffee with a few drops of cream, nicknamed so because the capuchin monks in Vienna wore vestments with this colour. Another popular coffee was Franziskaner, with more cream (or milk), referring to the somewhat 'lighter' brown colour of the robes of monks of the Franciscan order. Cappuccino is first mention in Italy in the 1930s, and photographs show a 'viennese'a coffee topped with whipped cream sprinkled with cinnamon or chocolate. Though coffee was brewed differently all over Europe after WW2, in Italy, espresso machines became widespread only during the 1950s, and 'cappuccino' was re-defined, now made from espresso and frothed milk (far from the quality of steamed milk today). As the espresso machines improved, so did the dosing of coffee and the heating of the milk. Outside Italy, 'cappuccino' spread, but was generally made from dark coffee with whipped cream, as it still is in large parts of Europe. The 'Kapuziner' remains unchanged on the Austrian coffee menu, even in Trieste, which by 1920 belonged to Italy and in Budapest, Prague, Bratislava and other cities of the former Empire.